INDIANAPOLIS (WISH) — Life has changed dramatically over the past six months since the coronavirus was declared a pandemic in March.
While some people have taken the opportunity to focus on developing a healthier lifestyle, others have turned to unhealthy behaviors such as stress eating and neglecting their overall health and fitness.
News 8 spoke with Alvin Tran, assistant professor in the School of Health Sciences at University of New Haven, about how the outbreak is affecting health behaviors specific to nutrition and physical activity. Tran also discussed the link between obesity and higher rates of COVID-19 infections as well as what those who are struggling to make positive changes can do to help themselves.
Gillis: One of your areas of research is how the COVID-19 outbreak is affecting our nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Let’s start with nutrition. Is this for better, worse or both? And what type of changes are we seeing?
Tran: I focus on both–on healthy eating behaviors, but also eating behaviors that are not necessarily recommended. What we’re seeing now during COVID-19 is people’s regular regimes…their eating behaviors are a little bit atypical now because of everything that is happening. So, what I study is trying to figure out how do they navigate that? How are people adjusting and adapting to this different environment given that we’re living through a global pandemic?
For me, a lot of what I’m seeing is that they have been adapting. There is a lot of stress eating and emotional eating going on. But other families have become very creative in thinking about “How do I incorporate healthier meals into my household now that my kids are back?” Some [kids] are taking classes remotely so they are not at school where they typically get some of their meals. So, parents are having to get very creative with trying to figure out healthy meals with my kids. That’s what I’m looking at right now.
Gillis: Same question for PA. Better, worse or both?
Tran: As public health professionals we try to encourage people to try and not live too sedentary a lifestyle. We want people to get up on their feet. Go for a walk. Get that heart rate up.
With all of those shelters in place and home orders in place there is some growing concern that is still sticking around to this day whether people are getting enough physical activity or exercise. So, it’s important for people working from home or if you are at home with your kids…what are some creative ways to build in exercise into your daily routine?
Does this mean kicking a ball back and forth in your backyard? It might be. But there are still many other creative ways. Many people have access to the internet where you can watch exercise videos. You can dance to music. There are so many creative ways. Go for a walk with your family members around your neighborhood. Definitely bring your mask though and make sure to keep a safe distance from other people. But there are so many safe ways to incorporate physical activity into your everyday life.
Gillis: An international team of researchers pooled data from dozens of peer-reviewed papers capturing 399,000 patients–this paper was published in Obesity Reviews recently. They found that people who are obese who contracted COVID-19 were: 113% more likely than people of A healthy weight to land in the hospital; 74% more likely to be admitted to an ICU; and 48% more likely to die. These statistics are quite alarming. What are your thoughts?
Tran: These statistics are alarming and I think some research shows the risk of mortality is at a 5 fold increase for those who do live in larger bodies compared to those who don’t.
I think the number one thing to acknowledge is that the research is still out there and people are still learning more about COVID-19 and its impact on humans and the population. And I think what’s out there right now is that some researchers are pointing to inflammation.
It’s people who have obesity, people who are obese…it has been shown they have low-grade inflammation. So, this just underscores the importance of turning back to and focusing back on nutrition and physical activity, which is what I like to focus on. Eating foods that are anti-inflammatory like your fruits and your vegetables. As a public health nutrition researcher, it’s important to remind parents, kids and teens to eat fruits and vegetables. Half of your plate should be fruits and vegetables because they do often contain anti-inflammatory properties. This all goes back to the importance of physical activity and eating healthy.
What we’re seeing now during COVID-19 is people are purchasing a lot of highly processed foods. Those foods aren’t necessarily recommended and they are not healthy for you. And it’s important that even during these anxious and stressful times we do keep in mind that our nutrition and our health needs to come first. That means incorporating those fruits and vegetables. And now is the time for parents to figure out innovative ways to prepare meals. That might mean cooking with their kids and creating recipes with them because right now it’s important to maintain optimal nutrition and physical activity.
And I do want to bring up concerns with weight stigma. I know there is an association between obesity and mortality during the time of COVID-19. So, it’s important to have friendly and strategic conversations about weight because we’re also seeing some people gaining weight during this time. There’s a saying going around called the ‘quarantine 15.’ With that said, it’s important we do not stigmatize and shame people for any weight gain whatsoever because that is harmful in and of itself. It deters people from going to the doctor and that causes a lot of feelings of shame and can have both physical and mental adverse outcomes. So, it’s very important to bring that up as well.
Gillis: Health behavior change is hard–what advice would you give people struggling to make a change?
Tran: What I think this pandemic has brought out in people is this fear and anxiety. Sometimes I feel that way, but it’s important to think about what I have control over. What parents and families and teens and kids have control over. So, you can still get physical activity. Try to figure out innovative ways because that does help alleviate some of that stress.
Think about cues to action, which are basically putting things around the house to remind you that you do need to get some exercise. You need to eat healthy. Maybe putting a pair of tennis shoes next to your door to remind you “Oh, maybe I should go for a walk.”
But also empower the people that you live with, especially if you’re living in a large household with friends and family. Take long walks together at a certain time. Build these activities in. Let’s encourage and empower each other to eat healthier during this time. There are many positive ways to do it. Empowering each other is very important.
News 8’s medical reporter, Dr. Mary Elizabeth Gillis, D.Ed., is a classically trained medical physiologist and biobehavioral research scientist. She has been a health, medical and science reporter for over 5 years. Her work has been featured in national media outlets. You can follow her on Instagram @reportergillis and Facebook @DrMaryGillis.
- Indiana State Department of Health coronavirus information (includes phone number to state hotline)
- WISH-TV coronavirus coverage
- WISH-TV’s “Gr8 Comeback”
- Original Indiana Back on Track plan
- Revised Stage 3 of Indiana Back on Track plan (May 12-June 13)
- Revised Stage 4 of Indiana Back on Track plan (June 12-July 3)
- Governor’s order, July 1: Stage 4.5 of Indiana Back on Track plan
- Governor’s order, Aug. 26: Extension of Stage 4.5 of Indiana Back on Track plan
- Governor’s order, Sept. 24: Revised Stage 5 of Indiana Back on Track plan
- Gleaners Food Bank distribution sites in Indianapolis area, south central Indiana
- Second Harvest of East Central Indiana “tailgate” food distribution sites
- Food Finders distribution sites in west and north central Indiana
- Coronavirus COVID-19 global cases map from John Hopkins University
- CDC’s coronavirus page
- Marion County Public Health Department coronavirus information
- U.S. Small Business Administration’s Economic Injury Disaster Loan program
- Indiana PPE Directory (for businesses, nonprofits and schools only)
Indiana coronavirus timeline
With updated information from the Indiana Department of Health through Sept. 27, this timeline reflects updated tallies of deaths and positive tests prior to that date.
- March 6: Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) confirms the first case in Indiana. Officials say the Marion County resident had recently traveled to Boston to attend a BioGen conference as a contractor.
- March 8: ISDH confirms a second case. An adult in Hendricks County who had also traveled to the BioGen conference was placed in isolation. Noblesville Schools say a parent and that parent’s children will be self-quarantining after attending an out-of-state event where someone else tested positive.
- March 9: Avon Community School Corp. says a student on March 8 tested positive.
- March 10: ISDH launches an online tracker. Ball State University basketball fans learn the Mid-American Conference tourney will have no fans in the stands. Three businesses operating nursing homes in Indiana announce they will no longer allow visitors.
- March 11: The Indianapolis-based NCAA announces the Final Four basketball tournaments will be conducted with essential staff and limited family attendance. The Big Ten announces all sports events, including the men’s basketball tournament at Bankers Life Fieldhouse, will have no fans starting March 12. Ball State University suspends in-person classes the rest of the spring semester. NBA suspends all games, including the Indiana Pacers, until further notice. Butler University and the University of Indianapolis extend spring break, after which they will have virtual classes.
- March 12: Gov. Eric Holcomb announces new protections that led to extended public school closings and the cancellation of large events across the state. The NCAA cancels its basketball tournaments. The Big Ten suspends all sporting events through the winter and spring seasons. The league including the Indy Fuel hockey team suspends its season. Indy Eleven says it will reschedule four matches. Indianapolis’ annual St. Patrick’s Day Parade is canceled.
- March 13: The Indiana High School Athletic Association postpones the boys basketball tournament. Wayzata Home Products, a Connersville cabinet maker, shuts down and lays off its entire workforce due to market uncertainty. Gov. Holcomb announces actions including the elimination of Medicaid co-pays for COVID-19 testing and the lifting of limits on the number of work hours per day for drivers of commercial vehicles. Franklin College says it will begin online classes March 18 and empty residence halls of students in two days. The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis closes indefinitely. The Indianapolis Public Library joins other libraries across Indiana and closes all facilities indefinitely.
- March 14: The Indiana Gaming Commission says all licensed gaming and racing operations will close in two days for an indefinite period.
- March 15: Indiana had its first death. St. Vincent Hospital in Indianapolis announces it will suspend all elective, non-urgent surgeries.
- March 16: Indiana had its second death. Gov. Holcomb announced the first Hoosier death. He closes bars, restaurants and nightclubs to in-person patrons, but maintains carryout and delivery services.
- March 17: Indiana had its third and fourth deaths. ISDH announces Indiana’s second death. Indiana’s Catholic bishops cancel masses indefinitely. Gov. Holcomb activates the National Guard. Purdue, Butler and Indiana State universities cancel May commencement ceremonies.
- March 18: Indiana had its fifth death. Eli Lilly and Co. says it will use its labs to speed up testing in Indiana. The 500 Festival suspends all events. Simon Property Group closes all malls and retail properties.
- March 19: Gov. Holcomb extends Indiana’s state of emergency into May. Holcomb says he’ll close all K-12 public and nonpublic schools. Standardized testing was canceled. The state’s income-tax and corporate-tax payment deadline was extended to July 15. Holcomb says the state will waive job search requirements for people applying for Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. The IHSAA Boys Basketball State Tournament was canceled. The Marion County Emergency Operations Center upgrades to Level 1 status.
- March 20: Indiana’s death toll rose to 9. ISDH announces Indiana’s third death. Gov. Holcomb moves the state’s primary election to June 2. Indiana University says it is postponing May commencement ceremonies on all campuses.
- March 21: Indiana’s death toll rises to 14. ISDH announces Indiana’s fourth death. Indiana National Guard says it and the Department of Transportation are distributing medical supplies to hospitals.
- March 22: Indiana’s death toll rises to 19. ISDH announces seven deaths.
- March 23: Indiana’s death toll rises to 24. Holcomb orders Hoosiers deemed nonessential to “stay at home” from March 24-April 7. Eli Lilly & Co. begins drive-thru testing for the coronavirus for health care workers with a doctor’s order. Ball State University cancels the May commencement.
- March 24: Indiana’s death toll rises to 29. Fred Payne of Indiana Workforce Development says any Hoosiers out of work, including temporary layoffs, are eligible to apply for unemployment benefits.
- March 25: Indiana’s death toll rises to 35. Indianapolis Motor Speedway announces the Indianapolis 500 is moved to Aug. 23.
- March 26: Indiana’s death toll rises to 44.
- March 27: Indiana’s death toll rises to 47.
- March 28: Indiana’s death toll rises to 58.
- March 29: Indiana’s death toll rises to 76.
- March 30: Indiana’s death toll rises to 91.
- March 31: Indiana’s death toll rises above 100, to 113. Gov. Holcomb extends the limits of bars and restaurants to offer only “to go” and “carryout” through April 6. Indiana health commissioner Dr. Kristina Box, asked about when Indiana will be in a surge of COVID-19 cases, says she thinks the surge is starting.
- April 1: Officials extend Marion County’s “stay at home” order through May 1. Marion County health officials say they will start COVID-19 testing services for front-line employees.
- April 2: The state announces K-12 schools will be closed for the rest of the school year. The Indiana High School Athletic Association cancels spring sports seasons.
- April 3: Gov. Holcomb extends the “stay at home” order through April 20. The state receives a federal Major Disaster Declaration for all 92 counties. The Indiana National Guard says it, the Army Corps of Engineers and state health officials will begin to assess sites for alternate health care facilities.
- April 4: Indiana’s death toll rises above 200.
- April 6: The state reports a Madison County nursing home has had 11 deaths. Gov. Holcomb extends the “stay at home” order through April 20. He also limits additional businesses to carry-out only.
- April 7: Indiana’s death toll rises above 300. Indiana health commissioner Box says four long-term care facilities have 22 deaths that appear to be related to COVID-19.
- April 10: ISDH said 24 residents of a long-term care facility in Madison County have died from COVID-related illness.
- April 11: Indiana’s death toll rises above 400.
- April 14: Indiana’s death toll rises above 500.
- April 16: Indiana records more than 10,000 positive coronavirus tests. The governor says he expects Indiana to experience a reopening in early May.
- April 17: Indiana’s death toll rises above 600. The governor says that he will extend the “stay at home” order through May 1.
- April 20: Indiana’s death toll rises above 700. Gov. Holcomb extends the “stay at home” order to May 1. The governor also says, if the medical supply chain is in good shape, other elective medical procedures can resume April 27.
- April 22: Indiana’s death toll rises above 800. The Tyson facility in Logansport voluntarily closes so 2,200 employees can be tested for COVID-19.
- April 24: Indiana’s death toll rises above 900. The Indianapolis City-County Council approves $25 million to help small businesses. Fishers City Council creates a city health department with a plan to test every resident.
- April 25: ISDH says it will launch an antibody testing study for Hoosiers; thousands of residents were randomly selected to participate in the study.
- April 27: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,000.
- April 28: Indiana officials say they will open COVID-19 testing to more Hoosiers, with expanded criteria and new testing services at 20 sites around the state.
- April 29: The state says it will spent $43 million on contact tracing.
- April 30: Indianapolis extends its stay-at-home order through May 15.
- May 1: Gov. Holcomb announces a phased reopening plan for the state of Indiana. He also extends the stay-at-home order to May 4.
- May 3: Indiana records more than 20,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- May 4: Indiana enters Stage 2 of its Back on Track plan, which excludes Cass County until May 18, and Lake and Marion counties until May 11.
- May 6:The state begins testing for all Hoosiers at 20 sites, with plans to expand the number of sites to 50 in a week. Ivy Tech Community College says it will continue virtual classes when summer courses begin in June.
- May 8: Cris Johnston, director of the Office of Budget and Management, says the state missed out on nearly $1 billion in anticipated April revenues; all state agencies will be given budget-cutting goals. Purdue University OKs plans to reopen for the fall semester with social distancing and other safety measures.
- May 10: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,500.
- May 13: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,600.The first phase of a state-sponsored study of the coronavirus estimated about 186,000 Hoosiers had COVID-19 or the antibodies for the novel virus by May 1. Indianapolis Mayor Joe Hogsett announced plans for limited reopenings of worship services, retail establishments, libraries and restaurants.
- May 15: Simon Property Group reopens Castleton Square Mall, Circle Centre Mall, and Fashion Mall at Keystone
- May 16: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,700.
- May 17: Marion County’s death toll rises above 500.
- May 18: Indiana reports its first case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in a child. The Farbest Foods turkey-processing plant in Huntingburg is closed for three days; 91 people had tested positive there.
- May 19: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,800.
- May 21: Indiana records more than 30,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- May 22: Indiana advances to Stage 3 of the Back on Track reopening plan. Indianapolis closes portions of five streets to allow restaurants to reopen with outdoor dining only.
- May 23: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,900.
- May 27: The U.S. death toll rises above 100,000. Indiana University says the fall semester will have in-person and online courses, plus an adjusted calendar through May 2021. Ball State University says the fall semester will be 13 straight weeks of in-person classes with no day off on Labor Day and no fall break.
- May 28: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,000.
- May 29: Places of worship in Marion County can begin holding indoor services at 50% capacity with proper social distancing. Jim Schellinger, Indiana secretary of commerce, said the federal Paycheck Protection Program has made 73,430 loans in Indiana totaling $9,379,164,461, the federal Economic Injury Disaster Loan program has made 5,070 loans in Indiana totaling $445,428,500, and the federal Economic Injury Disaster Loans Advance program has made 38,365 grants in Indiana totaling $136,554,000.
- June 1: Marion County restaurants begins serving customers indoors and outdoors with 50% capacity. Marion County salons, tattoo parlors reopen by appointment only. Marion County gyms, fitness centers and pools reopen with 50% capacity and no contact sports. However, a Marion County curfew that began the night of May 31 and continued into the morning of June 3 after rioting impacted the reopening of some businesses.
- June 2: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,100.
- June 3: Phase 2 of statewide testing of random Hoosiers by the Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health at IUPUI and the Indiana State Department of Health begins.
- June 5: Indiana reports May tax revenues were 20% short of projections made before the coronavirus closings started.
- June 8: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,200. Indianapolis leaders agree to spend $79 million in coronavirus relief funding on contact tracing, rent relief, personal protective equipment and support for small businesses.
- June 12: Indiana, excluding Marion County, advances to Stage 4 of reopening plan.
- June 14: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,300.
- June 15: Casinos and parimutuel racing reopen in the state. Marion County’s public libraries begin a phased reopening.
- June 19: Marion County advances to Stage 4 of state’s reopening plan.
- June 20: Indiana’s death toll rises to 2,400.
- June 24: The governor says the state’s moratorium on the eviction on renters will be extended through July. Indiana announces it will create a rental assistance program July 13. Indiana Pacers guard Malcolm Brogdon says he has tested positive for COVID-19.
- June 27: Indiana hospitalizations for COVID-19 begin to increase, with about 33 new patients a day through July 1.
- July 1: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,500. The governor pauses Stage 5 final reopening plan, announces Stage 4.5 from July 4-17.
- July 4: Indiana’s Stage 4.5 reopening plan begins.
- July 9: Indiana records more than 50,000 positive coronavirus tests. Marion County mandates mask-wearing.
- July 10: Indianapolis Public Schools announces its reopening plans.
- July 11: Indy Eleven resumes 2020 season with victory at Lucas Oil Stadium. The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis reopens.
- July 12: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,600.
- July 13: Indiana begins rental assistance program for all counties but Marion County. Marion County begins its own rental assistance program.
- July 15: Indiana announces the Stage 4.5 reopening plan will continue another two weeks. The WNBA season will begin.
- July 16: Indianapolis suspends applications for its rental assistance program due to overwhelming demand.
- July 22: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,700.
- July 23: Indiana records more than 60,000 positive coronavirus tests. MLB begins delayed season.
- July 24: Bars, taverns and nightclubs in Indianapolis are shut down again. City officials also return to other previous restrictions.
- July 25: Indiana Fever begins WNBA season after delays.
- July 27: Indiana governor’s order to wear face coverings begins. Great Lakes Valley Conference, which including University of Indianapolis, postpones most fall sports, including football, men’s and women’s soccer, and volleyball, until spring.
- July 30: NBA season resumes.
- Aug. 2: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,800.
- Aug. 4: Indianapolis Motor Speedway announces the Aug. 23 Indianapolis 500 will be run without fans.
- Aug. 5: With more than 1,000 positive tests reported in a single day, Indiana jumps to a total of 70,993 positive coronavirus tests.
- Aug. 10: Indiana records more than 75,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Aug. 11: The Big Ten announces it won’t play football this fall.
- Aug. 12: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,900. With more than 1,000 positive tests reported in a single day, Indiana records more than 77,000 positive coronavirus tests. Delta Middle School and Delta High School were closed through Aug. 24 after 228 students went into quarantine; students were moved to e-learning.
- Aug. 13: With more than 1,000 positive tests reported in a single day, Indiana records more than 78,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Aug. 14: With more than 1,000 positive tests reported in a single day, Indiana records more than 79,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Aug. 17: Indianapolis Public Schools restarts with online-only classes. News 8 learns the 2021 NBA All-Star Game will not happen on Presidents Day weekend in 2021.
- Aug. 20: Indiana’s death toll rises above 3,000. Purdue University suspends 36 students after a party at a co-op.
- Aug. 21: Indiana high school football season begins with some teams not playing due to COVID-19 concerns.
- Aug. 23: Butler University tells undergraduates that instruction will occur remotely for the first two weeks of the semester, starting Aug. 24, instead of in classrooms.
- Aug. 24: Purdue, Indiana, IUPUI and Ball State universities resume in-person classes.
- Aug. 25: Reports say a fraternity, a sorority and a cooperative house at Purdue University are under quarantines.
- Aug. 26: Indiana records more than 90,000 positive coronavirus tests. Gov. Holcomb extends the mask mandate through Sept. 25. Indiana’s rental assistance program will take applications for one last day.
- Aug. 27: Indiana University says eight Greek houses are under 14-day quarantines.
- Aug. 30: Indiana’s death toll rises above 3,100.
- Sept. 1: Indiana records more than 95,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 2: With more than 1,100 new cases, Indiana records more than 96,000 positive coronavirus tests. Indiana University tells 30 Greek houses in Bloomington to quarantine.
- Sept. 3: With more than 1,000 new cases, Indiana records more than 97,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 4: With more than 1,000 new cases, Indiana records more than 98,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 6: Indiana records more than 100,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 8: Marion County allows bars and nightclubs to reopen with 25% capacity indoors and 50% capacity outdoors.
- Sept. 9: Indiana’s death toll rises above 3,200.
- Sept. 10: With more than 1,200 new cases, Indiana records more than 103,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 11: With more than 1,000 new cases, Indiana records more than 104,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 12: With more than 1,200 new cases, Indiana records more than 105,000 positive coronavirus tests. The Indianapolis Colts open their season with a loss in a Jacksonville stadium with a limited number of fans.
- Sept. 17: With more than 1,400 new cases, Indiana records more than 109,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 18: With more than 1,000 new cases, Indiana records more than 110,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 19: Indiana’s death toll rises to 3,300.
- Sept. 21: The Indianapolis Colts home opener is limited to 2,500 fans.
- Sept. 23: Gov. Eric Holcomb extends the mask mandate through Oct. 17.
- Sept. 24: With more than 1,100 new cases, Indiana records more than 115,000 positive coronavirus tests. The state’s mask mandate is extended through Oct. 17.
- Sept. 25: With more than 1,100 new cases, Indiana records more than 116,000 positive coronavirus tests. The Mid-American Conference announces it will start a six-game football season Nov. 4, with the championship game Dec. 18 or 19.
- Sept. 26: Indiana records more than 117,000 positive coronavirus tests. Indiana advances to a revised Stage 5 of Indiana Back on Track plan with relaxed limits on gatherings, restaurants, bars, nightclubs and more. Marion, Monroe and Tippecanoe counties decided to have more restrictive limits, however.
- Sept. 27: Indiana records more than 118,000 positive coronavirus tests. The Indianapolis Colts second home game is limited to 7,500 fans.
- Sept. 28: Indiana records more than 119,000 positive coronavirus tests. Purdue University says it’s suspended 14 students, including 13 student-athletes, for violations of a pledge designed to curb the coronavirus pandemic on campus.
- Sept. 29: Indiana’s death toll rises above 3,400. Indiana records more than 120,000 positive coronavirus tests.
- Sept. 30: The Indiana State Department of Health’s online coronavirus dashboard began showing data on positive coronavirus cases in Indiana schools.
- Oct. 17: Indiana mask mandate set to expire.
- Oct. 23: The Big Ten will begin football season.
- Nov. 25: The NCAA men’s and women’s basketball seasons will begin the day before Thanksgiving with no fans in the stands.