INDIANAPOLIS (WISH) — Indianapolis is one of many communities across the country to name racism a public health crisis.
For quite a few Hoosiers, racism is making them sick.
In the WISH-TV series “We Stand Together,” News 8’s Katiera Winfrey sat down with Dr. Virginia Caine, director of the Marion County Public Health Department.
WINFREY: Recently it was determined that racism was a public health crisis. A lot of people might say how can that be a public health crisis. Can you expound on that?
CAINE: Well you know that health looks at populations as a whole. And that’s what it means by public health. And when you look at the impact of racism it has significant connotations related to the impact of health on an individual person. So racism can cause and present as violence. As we’ve seen across some states like Georgia and of course Minnesota with George Floyd. As a result of those deaths and negative impact on the body. But also prolonged exposure can cause a tremendous amount of stress and anxiety which can have huge implications for your blood pressure, anxiety depression…related to racism from a mental health standpoint. So it’s got great consequences in terms of it’s impact and how it manifests in so many different ways.
WINFREY: That’s interesting that you bring up the stress aspect. Some people may not realize just how much of a toll stress and depression can take physically on your body. Can you explain that sometimes that can turn into other types of problems?
CAINE: Let me just tell you this. You know I can be in a neighborhood and you have the kind of fear or run syndrome. But if I’m in a neighborhood or community and I’m very concerned about the violence as it relates to my body. We could be seeing post traumatic stress disorders. In a number of our members in this community not realizing the impact that a significant number persons undergo because they all live and the environment. And they don’t understand that environment or that culture. So they don’t understand the real implications of having steady stress on a daily basis. Not only the individual but the family as well.
WINFREY: And when you look at the protests as a whole some people look at that as well this is empowering to me but some people may see this and say all this kind of stresses me out what, how is this going to end up, what are people going to do. Is there another element.
CAINE: Also, definitely because just take what happen downtown. And look at our protest event unfortunately. We had a number of incidents. We had destruction of different entities downtown. For example I believe a CVS pharmacy got destroyed. We had a lot of seniors in that area they depend on their pharmacy to get their medication. They don’t always have the funding to take a cab to go to another pharmacy. So look how it impacted negatively from the economic standpoint. I have to figure out where I’m going to get money until the pharmacy is rebuilt. We had so many businesses there from an economic standpoint people need to work. They have to figure out how do I put food on the table for myself and for my family. But with the destruction of the property a lot of businesses had to close down temporarily. So there’s so many different factors that can be related to this protest. And in the healthcare profession for example, let me just say I’m seeing a patient and counseling a patient who may have diabetes. So you have to be very careful with what you eat. And I’m telling this patient you need to do these things and they come back in another visit and it’s clear from a nutritional standpoint they were not able to do that. And here I’m thinking it’s a non-compliant patient. If I was a provider because if I don’t understand the culture if I don’t understand their environment and what’s going on in their lives. I mean I realize that hey there is not a grocery store near them that has vegetables fruit that they can ascertain. As providers we have to have a better understanding of what’s going on with our patients.
WINFREY: I know when it was announced racism as a public health crisis there were plans in the works or steps to try to make some improvements. Are you all still working on those plans or have some of them already been developed?
CAINE: So no we are definitely working on those plans. But we are also trying to emphasize one of the things that I think is critical from racism standpoint is we have to improve the economy of everybody. We have to have this health equity. We’ve been too long in the state of Indiana minimum wage is $7.25 for over 25 years. Over 25 years a minimum wage of $7.25. So we should at least be making a living wage. What does that mean? I make enough money to put food on my table, pay my utilities, OK and have my rent. That’s a living wage. So it’s unfair that we have a significant number of our ethnic populations they may be in eight of the 10 lowest paying jobs. As a community we have a huge responsibility that if you’re working hard that you should be able to in an eight hour period be able to make a living wage. And so that I think is the key to good health and the second key to good health is great education.
- Indiana State Department of Health coronavirus information (includes phone number to state hotline)
- WISH-TV coronavirus coverage
- WISH-TV’s “Gr8 Comeback”
- Original Indiana Back on Track plan
- Revised Stage 3 of Indiana Back on Track plan (May 12-June 13)
- Revised Stage 4 of Indiana Back on Track plan (June 12-July 3)
- Governor’s order: Stage 4.5 of Indiana Back on Track plan
- IndyRent Assistance Portal (Marion County only)
- Indiana COVID-19 Rental Assistance Program (All counties except Marion County)
- Gleaners Food Bank distribution sites in Indianapolis area, south central Indiana
- Second Harvest of East Central Indiana “tailgate” food distribution sites
- Food Finders distribution sites in west and north central Indiana
- Coronavirus COVID-19 global cases map from John Hopkins University
- CDC’s coronavirus page
- Marion County Public Health Department coronavirus information
- U.S. Small Business Administration’s Economic Injury Disaster Loan program
- Indiana PPE Directory (for businesses, nonprofits and schools only)
Indiana coronavirus timeline
With updated information from the Indiana Department of Health on July 28, this timeline reflects updated tallies of deaths and positive tests prior to that date.
- March 6: Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) confirms the first case in Indiana. Officials say the Marion County resident had recently traveled to Boston to attend a BioGen conference as a contractor.
- March 8: ISDH confirms a second case. An adult in Hendricks County who had also traveled to the BioGen conference was placed in isolation. Noblesville Schools say a parent and that parent’s children will be self-quarantining after attending an out-of-state event where someone else tested positive.
- March 9: Avon Community School Corp. says a student on March 8 tested positive.
- March 10: ISDH launches an online tracker. Ball State University basketball fans learn the Mid-American Conference tourney will have no fans in the stands. Three businesses operating nursing homes in Indiana announce they will no longer allow visitors.
- March 11: The Indianapolis-based NCAA announces the Final Four basketball tournaments will be conducted with essential staff and limited family attendance. The Big Ten announces all sports events, including the men’s basketball tournament at Bankers Life Fieldhouse, will have no fans starting March 12. Ball State University suspends in-person classes the rest of the spring semester. NBA suspends all games, including the Indiana Pacers, until further notice. Butler University and the University of Indianapolis extend spring break, after which they will have virtual classes.
- March 12: Gov. Eric Holcomb announces new protections that led to extended public school closings and the cancellation of large events across the state. The NCAA cancels its basketball tournaments. The Big Ten suspends all sporting events through the winter and spring seasons. The league including the Indy Fuel hockey team suspends its season. Indy Eleven says it will reschedule four matches. Indianapolis’ annual St. Patrick’s Day Parade is canceled.
- March 13: The Indiana High School Athletic Association postpones the boys basketball tournament. Wayzata Home Products, a Connersville cabinet maker, shuts down and lays off its entire workforce due to market uncertainty. Gov. Holcomb announces actions including the elimination of Medicaid co-pays for COVID-19 testing and the lifting of limits on the number of work hours per day for drivers of commercial vehicles. Franklin College says it will begin online classes March 18 and empty residence halls of students in two days. The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis closes indefinitely. The Indianapolis Public Library joins other libraries across Indiana and closes all facilities indefinitely.
- March 14: The Indiana Gaming Commission says all licensed gaming and racing operations will close in two days for an indefinite period.
- March 15: Indiana had its first death. St. Vincent Hospital in Indianapolis announces it will suspend all elective, non-urgent surgeries.
- March 16: Indiana had its second death. Gov. Holcomb announced the first Hoosier death. He closes bars, restaurants and nightclubs to in-person patrons, but maintains carryout and delivery services.
- March 17: Indiana had its third and fourth deaths. ISDH announces Indiana’s second death. Indiana’s Catholic bishops cancel masses indefinitely. Gov. Holcomb activates the National Guard. Purdue, Butler and Indiana State universities cancel May commencement ceremonies.
- March 18: Indiana had its fifth death. Eli Lilly and Co. says it will use its labs to speed up testing in Indiana. The 500 Festival announces suspends all events. Simon Property Group closes all malls and retail properties.
- March 19: Gov. Holcomb extends Indiana’s state of emergency into May. Holcomb says he’ll close all K-12 public and nonpublic schools. Standardized testing was canceled. The state’s income-tax and corporate-tax payment deadline was extended to July 15. Holcomb says the state will waive job search requirements for people applying for Temporary Assistance to Needy Families. The IHSAA Boys Basketball State Tournament was canceled. The Marion County Emergency Operations Center upgrades to Level 1 status.
- March 20: Indiana’s death toll rose to 9. ISDH announces Indiana’s third death. Gov. Holcomb moves the state’s primary election to June 2. Indiana University says it is postponing May commencement ceremonies on all campuses.
- March 21: Indiana’s death toll rises to 14. ISDH announces Indiana’s fourth death. Indiana National Guard says it and the Department of Transportation are distributing medical supplies to hospitals.
- March 22: Indiana’s death toll rises to 19. ISDH announces seven deaths.
- March 23: Indiana’s death toll rises to 24. Holcomb orders Hoosiers deemed nonessential to “stay at home” from March 24-April 7. Eli Lilly & Co. begins drive-thru testing for the coronavirus for health care workers with a doctor’s order. Ball State University cancels the May commencement.
- March 24: Indiana’s death toll rises to 29. Fred Payne of Indiana Workforce Development says any Hoosiers out of work, including temporary layoffs, are eligible to apply for unemployment benefits.
- March 25: Indiana’s death toll rises to 35. Indianapolis Motor Speedway announces the Indianapolis 500 is moved to Aug. 23. IndyGo suspends fares and changes its ride schedules.
- March 26: Indiana’s death toll rises to 44.
- March 27: Indiana’s death toll rises to 47.
- March 28: Indiana’s death toll rises to 58.
- March 29: Indiana’s death toll rises to 76. President Donald Trump announces in a press conference that the national social distancing recommendation will be extended by 30 days.
- March 30: Indiana’s death toll rises to 91. Indiana health commissioner Dr. Kristina Box predicts the arrival of the surge in cases and deaths could come in mid-April to late April, but could be as late as mid-May, “but we don’t know.”
- March 31: Indiana’s death toll rises above 100, to 113. Gov. Holcomb extends the limits of bars and restaurants to offer only “to go” and “carryout” through April 6. Health commissioner Box, asked about when Indiana will be in a surge of COVID-19 cases, says she thinks the surge is starting.
- April 1: Officials extend Marion County’s “stay at home” order through May 1. Marion County health officials say they will start COVID-19 testing services for front-line employees.
- April 2: The state announces K-12 schools will be closed for the rest of the school year. The Indiana High School Athletic Association cancels spring sports seasons.
- April 3: Gov. Holcomb extends the “stay at home” order through April 20. The state receives a federal Major Disaster Declaration for all 92 counties. The Indiana National Guard says it, the Army Corps of Engineers and state health officials will begin to assess sites for alternate health care facilities.
- April 4: Indiana’s death toll rises above 200.
- April 6: The state reports a Madison County nursing home has had 11 deaths. Gov. Holcomb extends the “stay at home” order through April 20. He also limits additional businesses to carry-out only.
- April 7: Indiana’s death toll rises above 300. Indiana health commissioner Box says four long-term care facilities have 22 deaths that appear to be related to COVID-19.
- April 10: ISDH said 24 residents of a long-term care facility in Madison County have died from COVID-related illness.
- April 11: Indiana’s death toll rises above 400.
- April 14: Indiana’s death toll rises above 500.
- April 16: Tests ID more than 10,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. The governor says he expects Indiana to experience a reopening in early May.
- April 17: Indiana’s death toll rises above 600. The governor says that he will extend the “stay at home” order through May 1.
- April 20: Indiana’s death toll rises above 700. Gov. Holcomb extends the “stay at home” order to May 1. The governor also says, if the medical supply chain is in good shape, other elective medical procedures can resume April 27.
- April 22: Indiana’s death toll rises above 800. The Tyson facility in Logansport voluntarily closes so 2,200 employees can be tested for COVID-19.
- April 24: Indiana’s death toll rises above 900. The Indianapolis City-County Council approves $25 million to help small businesses. Fishers City Council creates a city health department with a plan to test every resident.
- April 25: ISDH says it will launch an antibody testing study for Hoosiers; thousands of residents were randomly selected to participate in the study.
- April 27: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,000.
- April 28: Indiana officials say they will open COVID-19 testing to more Hoosiers, with expanded criteria and new testing services at 20 sites around the state.
- April 29: The state says it will spent $43 million on contact tracing.
- April 30: Indianapolis extends its stay-at-home order through May 15.
- May 1: Gov. Holcomb announces a phased reopening plan for the state of Indiana. He also extends the stay-at-home order to May 4.
- May 3: Tests ID more than 20,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- May 4: Indiana enters Stage 2 of its Back on Track plan, which excludes Cass County until May 18, and Lake and Marion counties until May 11.
- May 6:The state begins testing for all Hoosiers at 20 sites, with plans to expand the number of sites to 50 in a week. Ivy Tech Community College says it will continue virtual classes when summer courses begin in June.
- May 8: Cris Johnston, director of the Office of Budget and Management, says the state missed out on nearly $1 billion in anticipated April revenues; all state agencies will be given budget-cutting goals. Purdue University OKs plans to reopen for the fall semester with social distancing and other safety measures.
- May 10: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,500.
- May 13: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,600.The first phase of a state-sponsored study of the coronavirus estimated about 186,000 Hoosiers had COVID-19 or the antibodies for the novel virus by May 1. Indianapolis Mayor Joe Hogsett announced plans for limited reopenings of worship services, retail establishments, libraries and restaurants.
- May 16: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,700.
- May 17: Marion County’s death toll rises above 500.
- May 18: Indiana reports its first case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in a child. The Farbest Foods turkey-processing plant in Huntingburg is closed for three days; 91 people have tested positive there.
- May 19: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,800.
- May 21: Tests ID more than 30,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- May 22: Indiana advances to Stage 3 of the Back on Track reopening plan. Indianapolis closes portions of five streets to allow restaurants to reopen with outdoor dining only.
- May 23: Indiana’s death toll rises above 1,900.
- May 27: The U.S. death toll rises above 100,000. Indiana University says the fall semester will have in-person and online courses, plus an adjusted calendar through May 2021. Ball State University says the fall semester will be 13 straight weeks of in-person classes with no day off on Labor Day and no fall break.
- May 28: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,000.
- May 29: Places of worship in Marion County can begin holding indoor services at 50% capacity with proper social distancing. Jim Schellinger, Indiana secretary of commerce, said the federal Paycheck Protection Program has made 73,430 loans in Indiana totaling $9,379,164,461, the federal Economic Injury Disaster Loan program has made 5,070 loans in Indiana totaling $445,428,500, and the federal Economic Injury Disaster Loans Advance program has made 38,365 grants in Indiana totaling $136,554,000.
- June 1: Marion County restaurants begins serving customers indoors and outdoors with 50% capacity. Marion County salons, tattoo parlors reopen by appointment only. Marion County gyms, fitness centers and pools reopen with 50% capacity and no contact sports. However, a Marion County curfew that began the night of May 31 and continued into the morning of June 3 after rioting impacted the reopening of some businesses.
- June 3: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,100. Phase 2 of statewide testing of random Hoosiers by the Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health at IUPUI and the Indiana State Department of Health begins.
- June 5: Indiana reports May tax revenues were 20% short of projections made before the coronavirus closings started.
- June 8: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,200. Indianapolis leaders agree to spend $79 million in coronavirus relief funding on contact tracing, rent relief, personal protective equipment and support for small businesses.
- June 12: Indiana, excluding Marion County, advances to Stage 4 of reopening plan.
- June 14: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,300.
- June 15: Casinos and parimutuel racing reopen in the state.
- June 19: Marion County advances to Stage 4 of state’s reopening plan.
- June 21: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,400.
- June 24: The governor says the state’s moratorium on the eviction on renters will be extended through July. Indiana announces it will create a rental assistance program July 13. Indiana Pacers guard Malcolm Brogdon says he has tested positive for COVID-19.
- June 27: Indiana hospitalizations for COVID-19 begin to increase, with about 33 new patients a day through July 1.
- July 1: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,500. The governor pauses Stage 5 final reopening plan, announces Stage 4.5 from July 4-17.
- July 4: Indiana’s Stage 4.5 reopening plan begins.
- July 9: Tests ID more than 50,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Marion County mandates mask wearing.
- July 10: Tests ID more than 51,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Indianapolis Public Schools announces its reopening plans.
- July 11: Indy Eleven resumes 2020 season with victory at Lucas Oil Stadium.
- July 12: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,600. Tests ID more than 52,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- July 13: Washington Township Schools says it will reopening with online classes only. Indiana begins rental assistance program for all counties but Marion County. Marion County will begins its own rental assistance program.
- July 14: Tests ID more than 53,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Wayne Township Schools pushes back date to restart classes by two weeks, to Aug. 12, to put technology and personal protective equipment in place. Carmel Clay Schools in-class instruction will happen for K-8 and a “hybrid” approach will be done for high grade levels.
- July 15: Tests ID more than 54,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Indiana announces the Stage 4.5 reopening plan will continue another two weeks. The WNBA season will begin.
- July 16: Indianapolis suspends applications for its rental assistance program due to overwhelming demand.
- July 17: Tests ID more than 55,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- July 18: Tests ID more than 56,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- July 19: Tests ID more than 57,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- July 21: Tests ID more than 58,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- July 22: Tests ID more than 59,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus.
- July 23: Indiana’s death toll rises above 2,700. Tests ID more than 60,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Center Grove Schools push back start date to Aug. 12. Westfield Washington Schools says it will reopen Aug. 13 under a “hybrid” plan. Pike Township Schools decides to start with online-only classes beginning Aug. 11.
- July 24: Tests ID more than 61,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Bars, taverns and nightclubs in Indianapolis are shut down again. City officials also return to other previous restrictions. The nation hits 4 million positive tests for COVID-19.
- July 25: Tests ID more than 62,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Indiana Fever begins WNBA season after delays.
- July 27: Tests ID more than 63,000 Hoosiers with coronavirus. Indiana governor’s order to wear face coverings begins. Great Lakes Valley Conference, which including University of Indianapolis, postpones most fall sports, including football, men’s and women’s soccer, and volleyball, until spring.
- July 30: NBA season will resume.